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Author Topic: TO&E: what is & TO&E?  (Read 6647 times)


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« on: 22 May 2009, 16:27:21 »

A table of organization and equipment (TOE or TO&E) is a document published by the U.S. Department of Defense which prescribes the organization, staffing, and equippage of units Also used in acronyms as 'T/O' and 'T/E'.

It also provides information on the mission and capabilities of a unit as well as the unit's current status. A general TOE is applicable to a type of unit (for instance, infantry) rather than a specific unit (the 3rd Infantry Division). In this way, all units of the same branch (such as Infantry) follow the same structural guidelines.

In the U.S. Army, there are four basic types of TOEs:

The Base Table of Organization and Equipment (BTOE)
An organizational design document based on current doctrine and available equipment. It shows the basics of a unit's structure and their wartime requirements (both for personnel and equipment)

The Objective table of organization and equipment (OTOE)
An updated form of the BTOE, usually formed within the last year. It is a fully modern document and is up to date with current policies and initiatives.

A Modification table of organization and equipment (MTOE)
A document that modifies a Basic TOE (BTOE) in regard to a specific unit. Used when a unit's needs are substantially different from the BTOE.

A Table of distribution and allowances (TDA)
A type of temporary TOE that is applicable to a specific mission. Used in an instance when there is no applicable TOE.

Each TOE has a unique number that identifies it. When changes are needed, a table is not modified, instead, a new table is drafted from scratch.

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« Reply #1 on: 4 November 2011, 19:32:13 »

A TO&E is the equipment and manpower listing for a unit at whatever level in the organization it holds. Each country has a different name for what the US terms TO&E but they all show the same information. The information about the unit would show the organization, number of men and weapons for that unit to be at full strength.

The TO&E may show any of the three data fields organization-manpower-equipment or any variety of the three. A TO&E is simply showing some detailed information about the unit's three data fields there is no requirement as to how the information is displayed.

For instance some examples of WWII TO&E's would look like this:

US Army Infantry Squad - 12 men: Squad leader (Thompson submachine gun 'SMG', M1 carbine, or M1 Garand rifle), 10 rifleman (M1 Garand rifle), 1 automatic rifleman (BAR). Organized as: Able Team (2 scouts); Baker Team (5 rifleman), Charlie Team (3 rifleman + BAR). One rifleman per platoon would generally carry a bazooka in addition to his personal weapon. There were 3 rifle squads per platoon in a rifle company.

US Airborne Infantry Squad - 12 men: same as infantry squad except that the BAR is replaced by a M1919A1 light machine gun (LMG). Same organization as the regular infantry squad. In practice the organization was flexible to the mission with one or more rifles often replaced by submachine guns and one man in the squad carrying a bazooka (generally one per platoon).

USMC Rifle Squad - 13 men (1944): The marine squad evolved throughout the war, adding additional firepower with each increment until settling on the 13-man configuration in mid 1944. Organized with a squad leader (Thompson SMG), and 3 x 4-man fire teams (3 rifles + 1 BAR each). In addition to the assigned personal weapons, the company commander could allocate 1 demolition pack and 1 flame thrower per squad as well as 1 bazooka per platoon, depending on mission requirements. These weapons would be carried by one of the squad's rifleman in addition to a personal weapon (often an M1 carbine to lighten the load). Since marines were often engaged in close-in fighting, they would frequently scrounge Thompson SMG's to replace rifles when available.

British & Commonwealth Infantry Squad (Section) - 10 men: Section leader (Sten SMG), Assistant Section Leader (rifle), 6 riflemen (rifle), Bren Number 1 (Bren LMG), Bren Number 2 (rifle). British and Commonwealth forces carried the .303 Enfield rifle (bolt action) throughout the war. The basic squad structure remained constant throught different battalion types (e.g., infantry, motorized, parachute), while the Para's were able to add additional Sten guns based on mission requirements. PIAT anti-tank weapons were allocated to squads from the company level as in the US forces.

Germany - 10 men(-): The basic German squad centered around an MG34 or MG42 general purpose machinegun (GPMG); personal weapons for the gunner and assistant gunner were pistols (generally), squad leader (MP40 SMG), 7 riflemen (Karabiner 98K 'Mauser' bolt action rifle). As the war progressed and manpower losses mounted the Germans were forced to reduce squad size to 9 men (dropping a rifleman). Panzergrenadier squads (halftrack mounted) had 8 dismounts with 2 GPMGs; Fallschirmjager (paratroop) squads were authorized 11 men, also with 2 GPMGs. In 1944 and 1945 many squads were below authorized strength even after replacements.

USSR - 10 men(-): The basic infantry squad included a squad leader (SMG), assistant leader (rifle), 5 rifleman (rifle), machinegunner (DP light machinegun), assistant gunner (rifle). Like the Germans, the Soviet forces suffered under terrible casualties and were frequently forced to reduce squad size. They also formed SMG squads of 9 or 10 men all armed with the PPsh 41 submachinegun for close-in assault. In some configurations, the SMG squad would be supplemented with an LMG.

Japan - 13 men: The squad consisted of an NCO squad leader, a machinegunner (Type 96 LMG), and 11 riflemen. All carried bolt action rifles (Arisaka) except the machinegunner. The Japanese did not employ submachineguns in any significant numbers.

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The unit structure for armies is basically this; with some different names being used in different military organizations:

Army Group
Fire Team/Section

Here is an example of the lower level organizations that can be used:

Squad - 9 to 10 soldiers. Typically commanded by a sergeant or staff sergeant, a squad or section is the smallest element in the Army structure, and its size is dependent on its function.

Platoon - 16 to 44 soldiers. A platoon is led by a lieutenant with an NCO as second in command, and consists of two to four squads or sections.

Company - 62 to 190 soldiers. Three to five platoons form a company, which is commanded by a captain with a first sergeant as the commander's principle NCO assistant. An artillery unit of equivalent size is called a battery, and a comparable armored or air cavalry unit is called a troop.

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Hope this helps.

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