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Author Topic: Spanish Civil War: A Comprehensive Quick Summary  (Read 68634 times)
Rattler
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« on: 17 September 2009, 12:26:58 »
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Let me open this topic with some general information about the Spanish Civil War from 1936-1939 (dont confuse with the 1820 one!), that left Spain at the border of ruin, and impeded that they later entered WWII. It is widely seen as the "test bed" for the upcoming 2nd World War, where all then major powers tried out tactics, material and technology (on the back of the Spanish people).

Wikipedia and myself (I edited some of the information presented) have it like that:

The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict that devastated Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939. It began after an attempted coup d'état by a group of Spanish Army generals against the government of the Second Spanish Republic (a left wing government, anti monarchistic), then under the leadership of president Manuel Azaña.

On the 10th May 1936 the conservative Niceto Alcala Zamora was ousted as president of Spain and replaced by the left-wing Manuel Azaña. Soon afterwards Spanish Army officers, including Emilio Mola, Francisco Franco, Juan Yague, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano and José Sanjurjo, began plotting to overthrow the Popular Front government. This resulted in the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War on 17th July, 1936.

In July, 1936, José Giral, the prime minister of the Popular Front government in Spain, requested aid from France. The prime minister, Leon Blum, agreed to send aircraft and artillery. However, after coming under pressure from Stanley Baldwin and Anthony Eden in Britain, and more right-wing members of his own cabinet, he changed his mind.

Baldwin and Blum now called for all countries in Europe not to intervene in the Spanish Civil War. In September 1936 a Non-Intervention Agreement was drawn-up and signed by 27 countries including Germany, Britain, France, the Soviet Union and Italy.

But, the Republicans (republicanos) were supported by the Soviet Union and Mexico, while the followers of the rebellion, Nationalists (nacionales), received the support of Fascist Italy (Aviazione Legionaria) and Nazi Germany (Legion Condor), as well as neighbouring Portugal. Although the United States was officially neutral, major American corporations such as Texaco, General Motors, Ford Motors and Firestone greatly assisted the Nationalist rebels with their constant supply of trucks, tires, machine tools and fuel.

Benito Mussolini continued to give aid to General Francisco Franco and his Nationalist forces and during the first three months of the Nonintervention Agreement sent 90 Italian aircraft and refitted the cruiser Canaris, the largest ship owned by the Nationalists and based here in Mallorca.

On 28th November the Italian government signed a secret treaty with the Spanish Nationalists. In return for military aid, the Nationalist agreed to allow Italy to establish bases in Spain if there was a war with France. Over the next three months Mussolini sent to Spain 130 aircraft, 2,500 tons of bombs, 500 cannons, 700 mortars, 12,000 machine-guns, 50 whippet tanks and 3,800 motor vehicles.

Adolf Hitler also continued to give aid to General Francisco Franco and his Nationalist forces but attempted to disguise this by sending the men, planes, tanks, and munitions via Portugal. He also gave permission for the formation of the Condor Legion. The Legion, under the command of General Hugo Sperrle, was an autonomous unit responsible only to Franco.

Joseph Stalin now became concerned that the Nationalists would defeat the Republicans in Spain. He took the view that four extreme right-wing governments in Europe would pose a serious threat to the security of the Soviet Union. Although Stalin continued to support the idea of the Nonintervention Agreement, he was now willing to supply the necessary military aid to stop a fascist regime being established in Spain.

Stalin encouraged the Comintern to organise the formation of International Brigades. He also sent Alexander Orlov of the NKVD to advise the Popular Front government. Orlov supervised a large-scale guerrilla operation behind Nationalist lines. He later claimed that around 14,000 people had been trained for this work by 1938.

The Soviet Union provided considerable help to the Spanish Communist Party to improve its position in the Popular Front government. This included the removal of the socialist Francisco Largo Caballero as prime minister and replacing him with the communist sympathizer, Juan Negrin.

The nationalist (right wing) insurgency was supported by the conservative Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas, or C.E.D.A), monarchists known as Carlist groups, and the Fascist Falange (Falange Española de las J.O.N.S.). The war ended with the victory of the rebel forces (i.e. the Falange), the overthrow of the Republican government, and the founding of a dictatorship led by General Francisco Franco. In the aftermath of the civil war, all right-wing parties were fused into the state party of the Franco regime, and Franco ruled as dictaor until 1975.

The war increased international tensions in Europe in the lead-up to World War II, and was largely seen as a proxy war between the Communist Soviet Union and Fascist states Italy and Germany. In particular, new tank warfare tactics and the terror bombing of cities from the air were features of the Spanish Civil War which played a significant part in the later general European war (see Guernica: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Guernica), Picasso dedicated one of his most famous pictures to the event:



The Spanish Civil War has been dubbed as "the first media war", with the writers and journalists covering it wanting their work "to support the cause".

Foreign correspondents covering it included Ernest Hemingway, Martha Gellhorn, George Orwell and Robert Capa. Like most civil wars, it became notable for the passion and political division it inspired, and for atrocities committed on both sides of the conflict. The Spanish Civil War often pitted family members, neighbors, and friends against each other. Apart from the combatants, many civilians were killed for their political or religious views by both sides, and after the war ended in 1939, Republicans were at times persecuted by the victorious Nationalists.

From a personal POV, living in Spain, I can say that the old tensions that were raised during the civil war (the diversion went through families: More than often family members were fighting on different sides; many people used the situation to get rid of economi competitors or of the lovers of their wives by sily denoucning them to belong ot either side, etc...) are still feebly present.

This is at least within elder people but also over generations: In my small village a gentleman (and gentleman he is by all accounts) who now is in his 80´s and who was a Guardia Civil all his life alledgedly led a platoon in 1937 capturing (republican) members of another family to the mountains and came back without them... Until today he refuses to say where the bodies are buried to the family, who would want to give them a proper burial. OTOH, he is the most serious supporter of the catholic community here, organizing weddings, burials, going to mass every day, etc...

Now imagine to be one of the grandsons/daughers of the disappeared (they have a shop here in the village) and having to serve the guy every day and you will see what I am talking about...

Rattler

To delve deeper into the matter, here some links:

http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=great_powers_in_spanish_civil_war

Another one -actually super interesting, with maps and all -  (and that´s the link that keeps deleting my post so I won´t post it anymore as link) you find googeling "The Spanish Civil War: a modern tragedy"

R.
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« Reply #1 on: 17 September 2009, 20:23:15 »
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A good summary of the movements (with comments) can be found here:

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/media/photo/spanish-civil-war-map

Some maps from the link I mentioned in the previous post as attachments.

Rattler



* sp_civ_war_map1.gif (23.46 KB, 724x538 - viewed 1028 times.)

* sp_civ_war_map2.gif (21.84 KB, 673x448 - viewed 941 times.)
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« Reply #2 on: 17 September 2009, 20:40:52 »
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This completely from Wikipedia (except the Salvador Dalí Picture), layout adapted for here by me:

Foreshadowing the conflict: Salvador Dalí's "Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War)"



Quote
Historical context

There were several reasons for the war, many of them long-term tensions that had escalated over the years.

The 19th century was turbulent for Spain.

The country had undergone several civil wars and revolts, carried out by both reformists and the conservatives, who tried to displace each other from power. A liberal tradition that first ascended to power with the Spanish Constitution of 1812 sought to abolish the absolutist monarchy
of the old regime and to establish a liberal state.

The most traditionalist sectors of the political sphere systematically tried to avert these reforms and to sustain the monarchy. The Carlists - supporters of Infante Carlos and his descendants - rallied to the cry of "God, Country and King" and fought for the cause of Spanish tradition (Absolutism and Catholicism) against the liberalism and later the republicanism of the Spanish governments of the day. The Carlists, at times (including the Carlist Wars), allied with nationalists (not to be confused with the nationalists of the Civil War) attempting to restore the historic liberties (and broad regional autonomy) granted by the fueros (regional charters) of the Basque Country and Catalonia. Further, from the mid-19th century onwards, liberalism was outflanked on its left by socialism of various types and especially by anarchism, which was far stronger in Spain than anywhere else in Europe aside from (possibly) Russia.

Spain experienced a number of different systems of rule in the period between the Napoleonic wars of the early 19th century and the outbreak of the Civil War.

During most of the 19th century, Spain was a constitutional monarchy, but under attack from various directions. The First Spanish Republic, founded in 1873, was short-lived. A monarchy under Alfonso XIII lasted from 1887 to 1931, but from 1923 was held in place by the military dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera. Following Primo de Rivera's overthrow in 1930, the monarchy was unable to maintain power and the Second Spanish Republic was declared in 1931. This Republic soon came to be led by a coalition of the left and center. A number of controversial reforms were passed, such as the Agrarian Law of 1932, distributing land among poor peasants. Millions of Spaniards had been living in more or less absolute poverty under the firm control of the aristocratic landowners in a quasi-feudal system. These reforms, along with anticlericalist acts, as well as military cutbacks and reforms, created strong opposition.

The Second Republic began on 14 April 1931 when King Alfonso XIII left the country following local and municipal elections in which Republican candidates won the majority of votes in urban areas. The departure led to a provisional government under Niceto Alcalá Zamora, and a constituent Cortes to draw up a new constitution, which was adopted on 9 December 1931, after being passed by a referendum three days earlier. The Spanish Constitution of 1931 meant the legal beginning of the Second Spanish Republic, in which the election of both the positions of Head of State and Head of government was meant to be democratic.

The 1931 Constitution was formally effective from 1931 until 1939; however, by the spring of 1936, just prior to the effective onset of the Spanish Civil War, it had been largely abandoned, the extreme left having taken power, disenfranchising the centre and conservatives.

The constitution provided for universal suffrage and generally accorded thorough civil liberties and representation, a major exception being Catholic rights. The Constitution proclaimed religious freedom and a complete separation of Church and State, but went much further and in actuality provided for governmental interference in church matters. Namely, it excluded the Church from education (prohibited teaching by religious orders, even in private schools), restricted Church property rights and investments, provided for confiscation of and prohibitions on ownership of Church property, and banned the Society of Jesus. The revolution of 1931 that established the Second Republic brought to power an anticlerical government.

The government was unable or unwilling to control the anti-Catholic sentiment or to curb deadly mob attacks on churches and monasteries. That caused Catholics to muster their forces in opposition, exacerbating the conditions that led to the war.

On 3 June 1933, in the encyclical Dilectissima Nobis (On Oppression Of The Church Of Spain), Pope Pius XI condemned the Spanish Government's deprivation of the civil liberties on which the Republic was supposedly based, noting in particular the expropriation of Church property and schools and the persecution of religious communities and orders.

Commentators have posited that the "hostile" approach to the issues of church and state was a substantial cause of the breakdown of democracy and the onset of civil war. Since the far left considered moderation of the anticlericalist aspects of the constitution as totally unacceptable, commentators have argued that "the Republic as a democratic constitutional regime was doomed from the outset".

In the 1933 elections to the Cortes Generales, the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas or CEDA) won a plurality of seats; however, these were not enough to form a majority. Despite the results, then President Niceto Alcalá-Zamora declined to invite the leader of the CEDA to form a government and instead invited the Radical Republican Party and its leader Alejandro Lerroux to do so. CEDA supported the Lerroux government; it later demanded and, on 1 October 1934, received three ministerial positions.

Lerroux's alliance with the right, his suppression of the revolt in 1934, and the Stra-Perlo scandal combined to leave him and his party with little support going into the 1936 election; Lerroux lost his seat in parliament.

Rising tensions and political violence

Hostility between the left and the right increased after the 1933 formation of the Government. Spain experienced general strikes and street conflicts. Noted among the strikes was the miners' revolt in northern Spain and riots in Madrid. Nearly all rebellions were crushed by the Government and political arrests followed.

Tensions rose in the period before the start of the war. Radicals became more aggressive, and conservatives turned to paramilitary and vigilante actions. According to official sources, 330 people were assassinated and 1,511 were wounded in political violence; records show 213 failed assassination attempts, 113 general strikes, and the destruction (typically by arson) of 160 religious buildings.

1936 Popular Front victory and aftermath

In the 1936 Elections a new coalition of Socialists (Socialist Workers Party of Spain, PSOE), liberals (Republican Left and the Republican Union Party), Communists, and various regional nationalist groups won the extremely tight election. The results gave 34 percent of the popular vote to the Popular Front and 33 percent to the incumbent government of the CEDA. This result, when coupled with the Socialists' refusal to participate in the new government, led to a general fear of revolution.

Azaña becomes president

Without the Socialists, Prime Minister Manuel Azaña, a liberal who favored gradual reform while respecting the democratic process, led a minority government. In April, parliament replaced President Niceto Alcalá-Zamora with Azaña. The removal of Zamora was made on specious grounds and in violation of the constitution. Although the right also voted for Zamora's removal, this was a watershed event which inspired many conservatives to give up on parliamentary politics. Leon Trotsky wrote that Zamora had been Spain's "stable pole", and his removal made the climate revolutionary.

Azaña was the object of intense hatred by Spanish rightists because he had pushed a reform agenda through a recalcitrant parliament in 1931–1933. Joaquín Arrarás, a friend of Francisco Franco, called him "a repulsive caterpillar of red Spain." The Spanish generals particularly disliked Azaña because he had cut the army's budget and closed the military academy while war minister (1931). CEDA turned its campaign chest over to army plotter Emilio Mola. Monarchist José Calvo Sotelo replaced CEDA's Gil Robles as the right's leading spokesman in parliament.

Murder of Calvo Sotelo


José Calvo Sotelo was the leading Spanish monarchist and a prominent parliamentary conservative. He protested against what he viewed as escalating anti-religious terror, expropriations, and hasty agricultural reforms, which he considered Bolshevist and anarchist. He instead advocated the creation of a corporative state.

On 12 July 1936, in Madrid, a far right group murdered Lieutenant José Castillo of the Assault Guards (a special police corps created to deal with urban violence) and a Socialist. The next day, Assault Guards with forged papers "arrested" Sotelo and abducted him in an Assault Guard van. Leftist gunman Luis Cuenca, who was operating in a commando unit of the Assault Guard led by Captain Fernando Condés Romero, is said to have murdered Sotelo. Condés was close to the Socialist leader Indalecio Prieto.

The murder of such a prominent member of parliament, with involvement of the police, aroused suspicions and strong reactions among the Center and the Right. Although the Nationalist generals were already in advanced stages of planning an uprising, the event provided a catalyst and convenient public justification for their coup.



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« Reply #3 on: 17 September 2009, 20:59:39 »
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http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/scw/photessay.htm

Some interesting set of photos, puts faces to the dry data above, of cause, as photo journalist, for me the all time greatest example for our profession, Robert Capa, sticks out (follow the link above to see more of this really impressive set that includes several fascimiles of newpapers of the time):

Air Raid, Barcelona; Robert Capa, 1939


Watching the sky. Photo: Robert Capa


A Republican militiaman meets his death. Photo: Robert Capa.


Here a set of the civilians involved: http://www.iisg.nl/collections/spanishcivilwar/index.php

And more (click on thumbnails to enlarge) http://www.vsw.org/research/soibelman/SCW/SCW-CH1.HTM

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« Reply #4 on: 17 September 2009, 22:35:48 »
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Good work there, Rattler.Smiley

The picture at the top is really interesting, kind of strange, but interesting, what does it mean?

So, this is yet another war that I know little about.  Thanks for all the info. on this.
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« Reply #5 on: 27 September 2009, 21:48:25 »
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The picture at the top is really interesting, kind of strange, but interesting, what does it mean?


I meant to reply to this request much earlier, but as this requires much typing and RL kept me off, now, here goes a bit later...:

Salvador Dalí, "Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War)"


Dalí (1904-1989) is one of the best known surrealistic painters in the world, he was Catalán (born in Figueras), and has done more than many others to propagate Spanish Paint Art over the world, though he also worked in scuplturing and films. His probably best known picture is

"Peristance of Memory"


What you see painted by Dalí here is a figure symbolic of the Spanish state in civil war, dismembered and mutilated, both at the same time reaching upward at itself and holding itself down with his foot.  Escher's later picked that visual idea up for his Drawing Hands (1948).

M. C. Escher: Drawing hands


Dalí used that to show the two sides that go hand in hand in this war, the liberation (he was supporting Franco) and the auto-mutilation. Dalí saw the war coming and was openly opposed to it, he painted this one work to give record of this feeling. He himself described it like this:

Quote
“I showed a vast human body, breaking out into monstrous excrescences of arms and legs tearing at one another in a delirium of auto-strangulation.”


The boiled beans in the title (and in the foreground of the picture) are widely refered to the ancient Catalan offering to the gods. The little man in the bottom left corner is a representation of the astonishing, awe-inspiring spirits contained in the souls of Anneke and Nikki van Lugo, childhood friends and muses of Dalí.

Now, Surrealism in general has to do a lot with war, and with the dark side of it, as it grew out of Dadaism which developed in the trenches of WWI from the horrors of the position war, the endless slaughter over 2-3 km of battlefield for years and the gas war. To understand Surrealism and the Freudian take on the world and philosphy it centers on, one must understand Dadaism first.

According to huntfor.com (http://www.huntfor.com/arthistory/C20th/dadaism.htm)
Quote
Dadaism or Dada is a post-World War I cultural movement in visual art as well as literature (mainly poetry), theatre and graphic design. The movement was, among other things, a protest against the barbarism of the War and what Dadaists believed was an oppressive intellectual rigidity in both art and everyday society; its works were characterized by a deliberate irrationality and the rejection of the prevailing standards of art. It influenced later movements including Surrealism.

According to its proponents, Dada was not art; it was anti-art. For everything that art stood for, Dada was to represent the opposite. Where art was concerned with aesthetics, Dada ignored them. If art is to have at least an implicit or latent message, Dada strives to have no meaning - interpretation of Dada is dependent entirely on the viewer. If art is to appeal to sensibilities, Dada offends. Perhaps it is then ironic that Dada is an influential movement in Modern art. Dada became a commentary on art and the world, thus becoming art itself.

The artists of the Dada movement had become disillusioned by art, art history and history in general. Many of them were veterans of World War I and had grown cynical of humanity after seeing what men were capable of doing to each other on the battlefields of Europe. Thus they became attracted to a nihilistic view of the world (they thought that nothing mankind had achieved was worthwhile, not even art), and created art in which chance and randomness formed the basis of creation. The basis of Dada is nonsense. With the order of the world destroyed by World War I, Dada was a way to express the confusion that was felt by many people as their world was turned upside down.


In Europe there were a lot of protagonists, even during the war still ongoing, in the US it had not so much impact, as the few US dadaists after the war had ended in 1918 stayed in France for a decade or so. The German Hugo Ball in 1916 was the first to officialy forumulate it in the Dada Manifesto (interesting read, btw).

Some examples, the first one of Hugo Ball himself, 'Gadji beri bimba', apoem that makes no sense at all in German, but the - invented - words still transport some associations:

Quote
gadji beri bimba glandridi laula lonni cadori
gadjama gramma berida bimbala glandri galassassa laulitalomini
gadji beri bin blassa glassala laula lonni cadorsu sassala bim
gadjama tuffm i zimzalla binban gligla wowolimai bin beri ban
o katalominai rhinozerossola hopsamen laulitalomini hoooo
gadjama rhinozerossola hopsamen
bluku terullala blaulala loooo

zimzim urullala zimzim urullala zimzim zanzibar zimzalla zam
elifantolim brussala bulomen brussala bulomen tromtata
velo da bang band affalo purzamai affalo purzamai lengado tor
gadjama bimbalo glandridi glassala zingtata pimpalo ögrögöööö
viola laxato viola zimbrabim viola uli paluji malooo

tuffm im zimbrabim negramai bumbalo negramai bumbalo tuffm i zim
gadjama bimbala oo beri gadjama gaga di gadjama affalo pinx
gaga di bumbalo bumbalo gadjamen
gaga di bling blong
gaga blung


Another well known poet was Richard Huelsenbeck, who got translated in the US, here some poems from 1916:

Quote
The evening comes the lambs flock home

Big stone balls celebrate their midday meal
The fleas will emigrate once the bets are placed
Then the country will be empty
Many more people must die of starvation
Take the executioner's sword and pierce the piss pot
Take the sun and shake your trouser leg
Everything needs to be thought over carefully
Unexpectedly the lions landed in my fireplace
Unexpectedly my head dropped onto my butt
Tarammtata rammta
The fatherland we shall love the great cheese cake
And the moon old Bismarck
And the ships skirting around the mashed potatoes
at midnight


Quote
The cylindrical gable

for John Heartfield

Up rose the dadasopher from the dada megalo toilet seat and made the following speech   I am the dadasopher from the beginning to the end   I hold a whisky bottle in my left hand and an eraser in my right hand   Nobody's got anything on me   The letters dance out of my ears and my belly makes waves to the beat of the Hohenfriedberger march   I crack my whip from east to west and the young lice I wish so well shout for joy on my fingers   My head's in the Nile and my legs chop open the Arctic Ocean but nobody knows what that's good for   This is Dadaco the book of the sun but even the sun doesn't know what it's good for   Look at the white steam spreading from my nostrils to cover the earth – see the shadow cast by my lips   I am the young moon waiting in waders as the trains depart I am the calf that climbs up the rain gutters in drill step   Yes yes that makes you marvel you earthly louts and blindworms that makes you rub your nose on the petroleum tank but that's not the last we've heard of that   Somebody came with an accordion and played for the elephant dance   I am the meteorite dropping out of the nipples of the moon   I am the cylindrical gable mounted by John Heartfield   Hey you underground workers and knackers open your bellies wide and trample the hair under your feet   Judgment day has begun the great day of reckoning.


In the US (and probably the best known English writing Dadaist) it was T. S. Eliot who explored this art form in his own ways:

Quote
       HYSTERIA

            As she laughed I was aware of becoming involved
            in her laughter and being part of it, until her
            teeth were only accidental stars with a talent
            for squad-drill. I was drawn in by short gasps,
            inhaled at each momentary recovery, lost finally
            in the dark caverns of her throat, bruised by
            the ripple of unseen muscles. An elderly waiter
            with trembling hands was hurriedly spreading
            a pink and white checked cloth over the rusty
            green iron table, saying: "If the lady and
            gentleman wish to take their tea in the garden,
            if the lady and gentleman wish to take their
            tea in the garden ..." I decided that if the
            shaking of her breasts could be stopped, some of
            the fragments of the afternoon might be collected,
            and I concentrated my attention with careful
            subtlety to this end.


And it was precisely John Heartfield (another German Dadaist: This was an artificial name he gave himself to protest against the xenophobic anti English sentiments in Germany during WWI) who made the bridge to the visual arts using the fairly new medium of photography and photomontage for making impact and who left the world with a lot of well known pictures about the two great wars and also about the Spanish Civil War (see last):




Now, how did this promote the apparicion of Surrealism?

World War I had scattered the writers and artists who had been based in Paris, and while away from Paris many involved themselves in the Dada movement, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the terrifying conflict upon the world. After the war when they returned to Paris the Dada activities continued.

During the war Surrealism's soon-to-be leader André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used the psychoanalytic methods of Sigmund Freud with soldiers who were shell-shocked.

Back in Paris, Breton joined in the Dada activities and also started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault. They began experimenting with "automatic writing" - spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts - and published the "automatic" writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in Littérature.

As they developed their philosophy they felt that while Dada rejected categories and labels, Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination.

Freud's methods to work with free association, dream analysis and the hidden unconscious (and later Wilhelm Reich´s deviations from them) were of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination. However, they embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness or darkness of the mind, in this way they differed completely from the earlier Dadaists. (Later the idiosyncratic Salvador Dalí explained it as: "There is only one difference between a madman and me. I am not mad.")

This, of cause, was often questioned: George Orwell dpicts Dalí as utterly perverse and misusing the term "arrt" http://www.artnet.com/magazineus/features/finch/finch7-12-07.asp:

Quote
...in his outlook, his character, the bedrock decency of a human being does not exist. -snip-
Just pronounce the magical word ’art’, and everything is OK. Rotting corpses with snails crawling over them is OK; kicking little girls in the head is OK; even a film like L’Âge d’or is OK.


Be this as it may, surrealistic painters like Miró, Dalí, Caballero, Masson, and Picasso contributed a lot of pictures in which they addressed the Spanish Civil War, here some of them:

Salvador Dalí: Autumn Cannabilism 1937


Pablo Picasso: Guernica (where he addreses the German bombing of the city Guernica in 1937)


Joan Miró: Help Spain 1938


André Masson: The Tower of Sleep, 1938


Joan Miró: Black and Red Series (plate 2) 1938


For more pictures and information about Surrealsim and Spanish Civil War go here: http://www.all-art.org/history580-3_Surrealist_Art1.html

Rattler
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« Reply #6 on: 28 September 2009, 12:22:28 »
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Wow,  amazing, surreal,  and imaginative pictures, all of them.   Thanks for taking the time to look into the background of this,  Rattler.   Smiley
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the_13th_redneck
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« Reply #7 on: 24 March 2010, 16:37:57 »
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Thank you for the great series of posts Rattler.
Another look into the complex and brutal world we live in.
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Rattler
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« Reply #8 on: 24 March 2010, 18:18:34 »
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Interesting, no? Just re-read the stuff I typed then in a frenzy, indeed it makes you sensitive a little bit to what our - not stupid - ancestors saw the world like after the new war form of WWI and the boom of the ´20s, actually not too different from what I feel today - but we have other means to express ourselves today, also our problems are different, cannot judge whether they are better or worse...

While wars have been becoming more mediatic than ever, they are at the same time more distant than ever, when were you ever personally touched by the wars we currently wage, in Iraq and the Stan?: Not too often (maybe a friend of yours died over there, but then, thats about it, except the crazy airport controls...).

OTOH, today many people feel that the "normal", everyday world is getting more crazy, faster, and surrealist every day, the "Normal Everyday Madness" now is the theme of the surrealists, and vids are their current form of expression (only history will tell whether this constitues a "movement"):

Examples (personally like "Kunstbar" and "Just an Impression" best, both my kind of visual thinking, in the former you will find all the characters I described above, the latter is additionally accompanied by fitting and msg carrying music):

Some people just re-innovate the old stuff mentioned above: "Kunstbar" (= Bar of Arts - "Kunst" being "Arts" in German):

Kunstbar


"Church of Surrealism" (citing Dali mainly):

Three Minute Film School "Surrealism"


From here on (as the embedding limit of this post is reached - only two vids embedded per post - ), just links to the vids, getting more modern all the time:

Modern Russian Surrealism Animation  "Hypn-eroto-machia"(still working on the Dali concept):
Russian animation: Hypn-eroto-machia (Huh?Huh?Huh?Huh???)


"just an impression":
unitxt short film / sound: alva noto featuring text+voice: anne james chaton actor: kyusaku shimada


"Why you shouldn´t pray to the Garbage Bin":
Porque No Se Debe Rezar a un Basurero (Embedding disabled, limit reached)

Rattler
« Last Edit: 25 March 2010, 03:08:26 by Rattler » Logged

"War does not determine who is right, war determines who is left...": The Rattler Way Of Life (thanks! to Solideo)... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9v3Vyr5o2Q
the_13th_redneck
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« Reply #9 on: 25 March 2010, 02:12:49 »
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What goes around comes around.
We will continue to screw up and one day things very well may happen on our doorstep.
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jeanierga
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« Reply #10 on: 5 July 2010, 04:50:36 »
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Spanish Civil War induced a terrific moment to those people who had got involved. The fact that, the Spanish invasion between the two group had been resulted as in World War II. Coup Detat was the reliable reason behind the historical war that had happened.
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« Reply #11 on: 5 July 2010, 08:46:20 »
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Spanish Civil War induced a terrific moment to those people who had got involved. The fact that, the Spanish invasion between the two group had been resulted as in World War II. Coup Detat was the reliable reason behind the historical war that had happened.


Coup the etat was just the answer to a critical situation of current government at that time. I invite everybody to look for what leftist side did in Asturias when right tendencies legitime republican government was governing. Resuming, did not accepted and rose in arms killing and destroying all in relation with right wing government
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« Reply #12 on: 5 July 2010, 15:06:48 »
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Just everybody NOTE: On first glance it appears "jeanierga" is a signature/profile spammer, signed up for the 2nd time already...: http://www.warandtactics.com/smf/science-technology/cars!/msg14686/#msg14686

But, as she/he has been frank with us showing his/her Philpine spamming account bkgnd and is posting (twice), I will let him/her get away with it (disarming the spam link of cause, gott to reward te effort Smiley) for the moment, maybe he/she has found a site that truly interests her/him, welcome her in this case, out with both of them if not.

Sme goes for "pacifica".

Just FYI, onwards.

TA
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