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Author Topic: Time Line for the Battles of the American Civil War  (Read 2198 times)
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« on: 7 November 2008, 03:01:15 »
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1861

January 1861 -- The South Secedes.
When Abraham Lincoln, a known opponent of slavery, was elected president, the South Carolina legislature perceived a threat. Calling a state convention, the delegates voted to remove the state of South Carolina from the union known as the United States of America. The Secession of South Carolina was followed by the secession of six more states -- Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas -- and the threat of Secession by four more -- Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. These eleven states eventually formed the Confederate States of America. Ordinances of Secession
January 7 - Speech of Tennessee Governor Isham G. Harris
January 9 - Mississippi seceded from the Union.
January 10 - Florida seceded from the Union.
January 11 Alabama seceded from the Union. Speech of E.S. Dargan
January 19 Georgia seceded from the Union.
January 26 Louisiana seceded from the Union.
January 29 Kansas admitted to the Union.
February 1 Texas seceded from the Union.
February 1861-- The South Creates a Government.
At a convention in Montgomery, Alabama, the seven seceding states created the Confederate Constitution, a document similar to the United States Constitution, but with greater stress on the autonomy of each state. Jefferson Davis was named provisional president of the Confederacy until elections could be held.
February 1861-- The South Seizes Federal Forts.
When President Buchanan -- Lincoln's predecessor -- refused to surrender southern federal forts to the seceding states, southern state troops seized them. At Fort Sumter, South Carolina troops repulsed a supply ship trying to reach federal forces based in the fort. The ship was forced to return to New York, its supplies undelivered.
March 4 1861-- Lincoln's Inauguration.
At Lincoln's inauguration the new president said he had no plans to end slavery in those states where it already existed, but he also said he would not accept secession. He hoped to resolve the national crisis without warfare.
March 9 - Address of George Williamson to the Texas Secession Convention
March 11 1861-- Confederate Constitution.
April 1861 -- Attack on Fort Sumter.
When President Lincoln planned to send supplies to Fort Sumter, he alerted the state in advance, in an attempt to avoid hostilities. South Carolina, however, feared a trick. On April 10, 1861, Brig. Gen. Beauregard, in command of the provisional Confederate forces at Charleston, South Carolina, demanded the surrender of the Union garrison of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor.
The Garrison commander Anderson refused. On April 12, Confederate batteries opened fire on the fort, which was unable to reply effectively. At 2:30 p.m., April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, evacuating the garrison on the following day.
The bombardment of Fort Sumter was the opening engagement of the American Civil War. Although there were no casualties during the bombardment, one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded (one mortally) when a cannon exploded prematurely when firing a salute during the evacuation.
From 1863 to 1865, the Confederates at Fort Sumter withstood a 22 month siege by Union forces. During this time, most of the fort was reduced to brick rubble. Fort Sumter became a national monument in 1948.
April 17 Virginia seceded from the Union.
April 25 Second Message of Isham Harris to the Tennessee Assembly
April 1861-- Four More States Join the Confederacy.
The attack on Fort Sumter prompted four more states to join the Confederacy. With Virginia's secession, Richmond was named the Confederate capitol.
May 6 Arkansas seceded from the Union.
May 18-19, 1861 Sewell's Point
May 20 North Carolina seceded from the Union.

May 29-June 1, 1861 Aquia Creek
June 1861-- West Virginia Is Born.
Residents of the western counties of Virginia did not wish to secede along with the rest of the state. This section of Virginia was admitted into the Union as the state of West Virginia on June 20, 1863.
June 1861-- Four Slave States Stay in the Union.
Despite their acceptance of slavery, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri did not join the Confederacy. Although divided in their loyalties, a combination of political maneuvering and Union military pressure kept these states from seceding.
June 3, 1861 Philippi / Philippi Races
June 10, 1861 Big Bethel / Bethel Church
June 17, 1861 Boonville
July 2, 1861 Hoke's Run / Falling Waters / Hainesville
July 5, 1861 Carthage
July 11, 1861 Rich Mountain
July 18, 1861 Bull Run / Blackburn's Ford
July 21, 1861 First Manassas / First Bull Run
July -- First Battle of Bull Run.
Public demand pushed General-in-Chief Winfield Scott to advance on the South before adequately training his untried troops. Scott ordered General Irvin McDowell to advance on Confederate troops stationed at Manassas Junction, Virginia. McDowell attacked on July 21, and was initially successful, but the introduction of Confederate reinforcements resulted in a Southern victory and a chaotic retreat toward Washington by federal troops.
July 1861-- General McDowell Is Replaced.
Suddenly aware of the threat of a protracted war and the army's need for organization and training, Lincoln replaced McDowell with General George B. McClellan.
July - November -- A Blockade of the South.
To blockade the coast of the Confederacy effectively, the federal navy had to be improved. By July, the effort at improvement had made a difference and an effective blockade had begun. The South responded by building small, fast ships that could outmaneuver Union vessels. On November 7, 1861, Captain Samuel F. Dupont's warships silenced Confederate guns in Fort Walker and Fort Beauregard. This victory enabled General Thomas W. Sherman's troops to occupy first Port Royal and then all the famous Sea Islands of South Carolina.
August 10, 1861 Wilson's Creek / Oak Hills
August 21 -- Confederate Assignments
Brig General Roswell S. Ripley CS Army Assigned to command of the Dept. South Carolina
Brig General John B. Grayson CS Army assigned to command of Dept of Middle and East Florida
August 26, 1861 Kessler's Cross Lanes
August 28-29, 1861 Hatteras Inlet Batteries / Fort Clark / Fort Hatteras
September 2, 1861 Dry Wood Creek / Battle of the Mules
September 10, 1861 Carnifex Ferry
September 12-15 1861 Cheat Mountain Summit
September 13-20, 1861 Lexington / Battle of the Hemp Bales
September 17, 1861 Liberty / Blue Mills Landing
September 19, 1861 Barbourville
October 3, 1861 Greenbrier River / Camp Bartow
October 9, 1861 Santa Rosa Island
October 21, 1861 Camp Wildcat / Wildcat Mountain
October 21, 1861 Fredericktown
October 21, 1861 Ball's Bluff / Leesburg
October 25, 1861 Springfield / Zagonyi's Charge
October 29 -- Sherman Moves
The Sherman Expedition sails from Hampton Roads Virginia
November 7, 1861 Belmont
November 8-9, 1861 Ivy Mountain / Ivy Creek / Ivy Narrows
November 19, 1861 Round Mountain
December 9, 1861 Chusto-Talasah / Caving Banks
December 13, 1861 Camp Allegheny / Allegheny Mountain
December 20, 1861 Dranesville
December 26, 1861 Chustenahlah
December 17, 1861 Rowlett's Station / Woodsonville / Green River
December 28, 1861 Mount Zion Church


1862

January 1862 -- Abraham Lincoln Takes Action. On January 27, President Lincoln issued a war order authorizing the Union to launch a unified aggressive action against the Confederacy. General McClellan ignored the order.
January 3, 1862 Cockpit Point / Freestone Point
January 5-6, 1862 Hancock / Romney Campaign
January 8, 1862 Roan's Tan Yard / Silver Creek
January 10, 1862 Middle Creek
January 19, 1862 Mill Springs / Logan's Cross-Roads / Fishing Creek
February 6, 1862 Fort Henry
February 11-16, 1862 Fort Donelson
February 20-21, 1862 Valverde
February 25: Nashville is first Confederate state capital to fall to Union forces
February 28-April 8, 1862 New Madrid
March 1862 -- McClellan Loses Command.
March 8, President Lincoln -- impatient with General McClellan's inactivity -- issued an order reorganizing the Army of Virginia and relieving McClellan of supreme command. McClellan was given command of the Army of the Potomac, and ordered to attack Richmond. This marked the beginning of the Peninsular Campaign.
February 7-8, 1862 Roanoke Island / Fort Huger
March 6-8-- CSA Major General Earl Van Dorn set out to outflank the Union position near Pea Ridge, Arkansas on the night of March 6, dividing his army into two columns. Learning of Van Dorn's approach, the Federals marched north to meet his advance on March 7. This movement—compounded by the killing of two generals, Brig. General Ben McCulloch and Brig. General James McQueen McIntosh, and the capture of their ranking colonel—halted the Rebel attack. Van Dorn led a second column to meet the Federals in the Elkhorn Tavern and Tanyard area. By nightfall, the Confederates controlled Elkhorn Tavern and Telegraph Road. The next day, Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, having regrouped and consolidated his army, counterattacked near the tavern and, by successfully employing his artillery, slowly forced the Rebels back. Running short of ammunition, Van Dorn abandoned the battlefield. The Union controlled Missouri for the next two years.
March 6-8, 1862 Pea Ridge / Elkhorn Tavern
March 8-9, 1862 Hampton Roads / Battle of the Ironclads
March 1862 -- The "Monitor" and the "Merrimac."  In an attempt to reduce the North's great naval advantage, Confederate engineers converted a scuttled Union frigate, the U.S.S. Merrimac, into an iron-sided vessel rechristened the C.S.S. Virginia. On March 9, in the first naval engagement between ironclad ships, the Monitor fought the Virginia to a draw, but not before the Virginia had sunk two wooden Union warships off Norfolk, Virginia.
March 14, 1862 New Berne
March 23, 1862 Kernstown
March 23-April 26, 1862 Fort Macon
March 26-28, 1862 Glorieta Pass
April 5-May 4, 1862 Yorktown
April 6-7, 1862 Shiloh / Pittsburg Landing
April 10-11, 1862 Fort Pulaski
April 16-28, 1862 Fort Jackson / Fort St. Philip
April 19, 1862 South Mills / Camden
April 25–May 1, 1862 New Orleans
April 29-June 10, 1862 Corinth
April 16: Confederates enact conscription.
April 1862 -- The Battle of Shiloh.
April 6, Confederate forces attacked Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant at Shiloh, Tennessee. By the end of the day, the federal troops were almost defeated. Yet, during the night, reinforcements arrived, and by the next morning the Union commanded the field. When Confederate forces retreated, the exhausted federal forces did not follow. Casualties were heavy -- 13,000 out of 63,000 Union soldiers died, and 11,000 of 40,000 Confederate troops were killed.
April  1862 Fort Pulaski, Georgia --
General Quincy A. Gillmore battered Fort Pulaski, the imposing masonry structure near the mouth of the Savannah River, into submission in less than two days, (April 10-11, 1862).
April 1862 -- New Orleans.
Flag Officer David Farragut led an assault up the Mississippi River. By April 25, he was in command of New Orleans.
April 1862 -- The Peninsular Campaign.
April, General McClellan's troops left northern Virginia to begin the Peninsular Campaign. By May 4, they occupied Yorktown, Virginia. At Williamsburg, Confederate forces prevented McClellan from meeting the main part of the Confederate army, and McClellan halted his troops, awaiting reinforcements.
May 1862 -- "Stonewall" Jackson Defeats Union Forces.
Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, commanding forces in the Shenandoah Valley, attacked Union forces in late March, forcing them to retreat across the Potomac. As a result, Union troops were rushed to protect Washington, D.C.
May 5, 1862 Williamsburg / Fort Magruder
May 7, 1862 Eltham's Landing Barhamsville / West Point
May 8, 1862 McDowell / Sitlington's Hill
May 10,1862 Naval Engagement Fort Pillow Tennessee
May 15, 1862 Drewry's Bluff / Fort Darling / Fort Drewry
May 15-17, 1862 Princeton Courthouse / Actions at Wolf Creek
May 23, 1862 Front Royal / Guard Hill / Cedarville
May 25, 1862 Winchester / Bowers Hill
May 27, 1862 Hanover Court House / Slash Church
May 31-June 1, 1862 Seven Pines / Fair Oaks Station
May 31 -- The Battle of Seven Pines (Fair Oaks).
The Confederate army attacked federal forces at Seven Pines, almost defeating them; last-minute reinforcements saved the Union from a serious defeat. Confederate commander Joseph E. Johnston was severely wounded, and command of the Army of Northern Virginia fell to Robert E. Lee.
June 5, 1862 Tranter's Creek
June 6, 1862 Memphis
June 7-8, 1862 Chattanooga
June 8, 1862 Cross Keys
June 9, 1862 Port Republic
June 16 -- Secessionville South Carolina
June 16, contrary to Hunter's orders, Benham launched an unsuccessful frontal assault against Fort Lamar at Secessionville. Because Benham was said to have disobeyed orders, Hunter relieved him of command. Early June 1862, Maj. Gen. David Hunter had transported Horatio Wright's and Isaac Stevens's Union divisions under immediate direction of Brig. Gen. Henry Benham to James Island where they entrenched at Grimball's Landing near the southern flank of the Confederate defenses.
June 16, 1862 Secessionville / Ft. Lamar / James Island
June 17, 1862 Saint Charles
June 21, 1862 Simmon's Bluff
June 21 -- Simmon's Bluff South Carolina
June 21, troops of the 55th Pennsylvania landed from the gunboat Crusader and transport Planter near Simmon's Bluff on Wadmelaw Sound, surprising and burning an encampment of the 16th South Carolina Infantry. The Confederates scattered, and the Federals returned to their ships. Despite this minor victory, the Federals abandoned their raid on the railroad.
June 25, 1862 Oak Grove French's Field / King's School House
June 26, 1862 Beaver Dam Creek / Mechanicsville / Ellerson's Mill
June 27, 1862 Gaines' Mill / First Cold Harbor
June 27-28, 1862 Garnett's Farm / Golding's Farm
June 29, 1862 Savage's Station
June 30, 1862 White Oak Swamp
June 30, 1862 Glendale / Frayser's Farm / Riddell's Shop
June 30-July 1, 1862 Tampa
June 30 City of Tampa.
A Union gunboat came into Tampa Bay, turned her broadside on the town, and opened her ports. The gunboat then dispatched a launch carrying 20 men and a lieutenant under a flag of truce demanding the surrender of Tampa. The Confederates refused, and the gunboat opened fire. The officer then informed the Confederates that shelling would commence at 6:00 pm after allowing time to evacuate non-combatants from the city. Firing continued sporadically into the afternoon of July 1, when the Federal gunboat withdrew.
July The Seven Days' Battles.
June 26 and July 2, Union and Confederate forces fought a series of battles: Mechanicsville (June 26-27), Gaines's Mill (June 27), Savage's Station (June 29), Frayser's Farm (June 30), and Malvern Hill (July 1). On July 2, the Confederates withdrew to Richmond, ending the Peninsular Campaign.
July 1862 -- A New Commander of the Union Army.
July 11, Major-General Henry Halleck was named general-in-chief of the Union army.
July 1, 1862 Malvern Hill / Poindexter's Farm
July 7, 1862 Hill's Plantation / Cache River / Cotton Plant
July 13, 1862 Murfreesboro
August 5, 1862 Baton Rouge / Magnolia Cemetery
August 6-9, 1862 Kirksville
August 9, 1862 Cedar Mountain / Slaughter's Mountain / Cedar Run
August 11, 1862 Independence
August 15-16, 1862 Lone Jack
August 20-22, 1862 Fort Ridgely
August 22-25, 1862 Rappahannock Station / Waterloo Bridge
August 25-27,1862 Manassas Station Operations
August 28, 1862 Thoroughfare Gap / Chapman's Mill
August 28-30, 1862 Manassas Second / Second Bull Run
August 1862 -- Pope's Campaign.
Union General John Pope suffered defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run on August 29- 30. General Fitz-John Porter was held responsible for the defeat because he had failed to commit his troops to battle quickly enough; he was forced out of the army by 1863.
August 29-30, 1862 Richmond
September 4: Army of northern Virginia crosses Potomac river to invade Maryland
September 1862 -- Harper's Ferry.
Union General McClellan defeated Confederate General Lee at South Mountain and Crampton's Gap in September, but did not move quickly enough to save Harper's Ferry, which fell to Confederate General Jackson on September 15, along with a great number of men and a large body of supplies.
September 1, 1862 Chantilly / Ox Hill
September 14-17, 1862 Munfordville / Green River Bridge
September 14 Crampton's Gap.
September 12-15, 1862 Harpers Ferry
Sept 14, 1862 South Mountain / Crampton Gap / Turner Gap / Fox Gap
September 16-18, 1862 Antietam / Sharpsburg
September 19, 1862 Iuka
September 19-20, 1862 Shepherdstown / Boteler's Ford
September 1862 -- Antietam.
September 17, Confederate forces under General Lee were caught by General McClellan near Sharpsburg, Maryland. This battle proved to be the bloodiest day of the war; 2,108 Union soldiers were killed and 9,549 wounded -- 2,700 Confederates were killed and 9,029 wounded. The battle had no clear winner, but because General Lee withdrew to Virginia, McClellan was considered the victor. The battle convinced the British and French -- who were contemplating official recognition of the Confederacy -- to reserve action, and gave Lincoln the opportunity to announce his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation (September 22), which would free all slaves in areas rebelling against the United States, effective January 1, 1863.
September 23, 1862 Wood Lake
September 23 -- Sabine Pass.
September 23, 1862, the Union Steamer Kensington, Schooner Rachel Seaman, and Mortar Schooner Henry James appeared off the bar at Sabine Pass. The next morning, the two schooners crossed the bar, took position, and began firing on the Confederate shore battery. The shots from both land and shore fell far short of the targets. The ships then moved nearer until their projectiles began to fall amongst the Confederate guns. The Confederate cannons, however, still could not hit the ships. After dark, the Confederates evacuated, taking as much property as possible with them and spiking the four guns left behind. On the morning of the 25th, the schooners moved up to the battery and destroyed it while Acting Master Frederick Crocker, commander of the expedition, received the surrender of the town. Union control of Sabine Pass made later incursions into the interior possible.
September 24-25, 1862 Sabine Pass
September 30, 1862 Newtonia
October 1-3, 1862 St. John's Bluff
October 1-3 --St. John's Bluff
Brig. General John Finegan established a battery on St. John' s Bluff near Jacksonville to stop the movement of Federal ships up the St. Johns River. Brig. Gen. John M. Brannan embarked with about 1,500 infantry aboard the transports Boston, Ben DeFord, Cosmopolitan, and Neptune at Hilton Head, South Carolina, on September 30. The flotilla arrived at the mouth of the St. John's River on October 1, where Cdr. Charles Steedman' s gunboats—Paul Jones, Cimarron, Uncas, Patroon, Hale, and Water Witch—joined them. By midday, the gunboats approached the bluff, while Brannan began landing troops at Mayport Mills. Another infantry force landed at Mount Pleasant Creek, about five miles in the rear of the Confederate battery, and began marching overland on the 2nd. Outmaneuvered, Lt. Col. Charles F. Hopkins abandoned the position after dark. When the gunboats approached the bluff the next day, its guns were silent.
October 3-4, 1862 Corinth
October 4 -- Galveston Texas.
At 6:00 am on October 4, 1862, Cdr. W.B. Renshaw, commanding the blockading ships in the Galveston Bay area, sent Harriet Lane into the harbor.
October 4, 1862 Galveston
October 5, 1862 Hatchie's Bridge / Davis Bridge / Matamora
October 8, 1862 Perryville
October 22, 1862 Old Fort Wayne / Beaty's Prairie
October 27, 1862 Georgia Landing / Labadieville / Texana
November 7, 1862 Clark's Mill / Vera Cruz
November 28, 1862 Cane Hill / Boston Mountains
December 7, 1862 Hartsville
December 14, 1862 Kinston
December 16, 1862 White Hall / Whitehall / White Hall Ferry
December 17, 1862 Goldsborough Bridge
December 19, 1862 Jackson, Mississippi
December 26-29, 1862 Chickasaw Bayou / Walnut Hills
December 31, 1862 Parker's Cross Roads
Dec 31, 1862-Jan 2, 1863 Stones River / Murfreesboro
December 29 -- Murfreesboro Stones River Campaign
December 1862 -- The Battle of Fredericksburg.
General McClellan's slow movements, combined with General Lee's escape, and continued raiding by Confederate cavalry, dismayed many in the North. On November 7, Lincoln replaced McClellan with Major General Ambrose E. Burnside. Burnside's forces were defeated in a series of attacks against entrenched Confederate forces at Fredericksburg, Virginia, and Burnside was replaced with General Joseph Hooker.
December 7, 1862 Prairie Grove / Fayetteville
December 11-15, 1862 Fredericksburg I / Marye's Heights


1863

January 1863 -- Emancipation Proclamation.
In an effort to placate the slave-holding border states, Lincoln resisted the demands of radical Republicans for complete abolition. Yet some Union generals, such as General B. F. Butler, declared slaves escaping to their lines "contraband of war," not to be returned to their masters. Other generals decreed that the slaves of men rebelling against the Union were to be considered free. Congress, too, had been moving toward abolition. In 1861, Congress had passed an act stating that all slaves employed against the Union were to be considered free. In 1862, another act stated that all slaves of men who supported the Confederacy were to be considered free. Lincoln, aware of the public's growing support of abolition, issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, declaring that all slaves in areas still in rebellion were, in the eyes of the federal government, free.
January 1
Major General John B. Magruder, who became the Confederate commander of military forces in Texas on November 29, 1862, gave the recapture of Galveston top priority. At 3:00 am on New Year's Day, 1863, four Confederate gunboats appeared, coming down the bay toward Galveston. Soon afterward, the Rebels commenced a land attack. The Union forces in Galveston were three companies of the 42nd Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment under the command of Col. Isaac S. Burrell. The Confederates captured or killed all of them except for the regiment's adjutant. They also took Harriet Lane, by boarding her, and two barks and a schooner. Cdr. W.B. Renshaw's flagship, U.S.S. Westfield, ran aground when trying to help Harriet Lane and, at 10:00 am, she was blown up to prevent her capture by the Confederates. Galveston was in Confederate hands again although the Union blockade would limit commerce in and out of the harbor. Galveston. Soon afterward, the Rebels commenced a land attack.
January 1, 1863 Galveston
January 8, 1863 Springfield
January 9-11, 1863 Hartville
January 9-11, 1863 Arkansas Post / Fort Hindman
January 29, 1863 Bear River / Massacre at Boa Ogoi
February 3, 1863 Dover / Fort Donelson
February 28 Confederate Privateer Rattlesnake destroyed by the monitor USS Montauk
March 1863 -- The First Conscription Act.
Because of recruiting difficulties, an act was passed making all men between the ages of 20 and 45 liable to be called for military service. Service could be avoided by paying a fee or finding a substitute. The act was seen as unfair to the poor, and riots in working-class sections of New York City broke out in protest. A similar conscription act in the South provoked a similar reaction.
March 3, 1863 Fort McAllister I
March 5, 1863 Thompson's Station
March 13-15, 1863 Fort Anderson / Deep Gully
March 17, 1863 Kelly's Ford / Kellysville
March 20, 1863 Vaught's Hill / Milton
March 25, 1863 Brentwood
March 30-April 20, 1863 Washington
April -- Charleston Harbor
Maj. Gen. David Hunter prepared his land forces on Folly, Cole's, and North Edisto Islands to cooperate with a naval bombardment of Fort Sumter. On April 7, the South Atlantic Squadron under Rear Admiral S.F. Du Pont bombarded Fort Sumter, having little impact on the Confederate defenses of Charleston Harbor. Although several of Hunter's units had embarked on transports, the infantry were not landed, and the joint operation was abandoned.
The ironclad warships Keokuk, Weehawken, Passaic, Montauk, Patapsco, New Ironsides, Catskill, Nantucket, and Nahant participated in the bombardment. Keokuk, struck more than 90 times by the accurate Confederate fire, sunk the next day.
April 7, 1863 Charleston Harbor / Fort Sumter
April 11-May 4, 1863 Suffolk / Fort Huger / Hill's Point
April 10, 1863 Franklin
April 12-13, 1863 Fort Bisland / Bethel Place
April 13-15, 1863 Suffolk / Norfleet House Battery
April 14, 1863 Irish Bend / Nerson's Woods / Franklin
April 17, 1863 Vermillion Bayou
April 26, 1863 Cape Girardeau
April 29, 1863 Grand Gulf
April 29-May 1, 1863 Snyder's Bluff / Snyder's Mill
April 30-May 6, 1863 Chancellorsville
May 1, 1863 Port Gibson / Thompson's Hill
May 1-2, 1863 Chalk Bluff
May 1863 -- The Battle of Chancellorsville.
April 27, Union General Hooker crossed the Rappahannock River to attack General Lee's forces. Lee split his army, attacking a surprised Union army in three places and almost completely defeating them. Hooker withdrew across the Rappahannock River, giving the South a victory, but it was the Confederates' most costly victory in terms of casualties.
May 10 Stonewall Jackson dies
Stonewall Jackson dies of pneumonia following amputation of his arm at Chancellorsville
May 1863 -- The Vicksburg Campaign.
Union General Grant won several victories around Vicksburg, Mississippi, the fortified city considered essential to the Union's plans to regain control of the Mississippi River. On May 22, Grant began a siege of the city. After six weeks, Confederate General John Pemberton surrendered, giving up the city and 30,000 men. The capture of Port Hudson, Louisiana, shortly thereafter placed the entire Mississippi River in Union hands. The Confederacy was split in two.
May 3, 1863 Fredericksburg II / Marye's Heights
May 3-4, 1863 Salem Church / Banks' Ford
May 12, 1863 Raymond
May 13, Big Black River (Map) skirmishes at Baldwin's Ferry and Hall's Ferry
May 14, 1863 Jackson, Mississippi
May 16 Champion Hill / Bakers Creek
May 17 Big Black River Bridge
May 18-July 4, 1863 Vicksburg
May 21, 1863 Plains Store / Springfield Road
May 21-July 9, 1863 Port Hudson
June 7, 1863 Milliken's Bend
June 9, 1863 -- Battle of Brandy Station.
The victorious Confederate Army of Northern Virginia streamed into Culpeper County after its victory at Fredericksburg. Under the leadership of General Robert E. Lee, the troops seemed invincible and massed around Culpeper preparing to carry the war north into Pennsylvania.
June 5, two infantry corps under Longstreet and Ewell were camped in and around Culpeper. Six miles north of town, holding the line of the Rappahannock River, Gen. J.E.B. Stuart bivouacked his cavalry troopers, screening the Confederate Army against surprise by the enemy.
June 9, 1863 Brandy Station / Fleetwood Hill
June 17, 1863 Aldie
June 17-19, 1863 Middleburg
June 13-15, 1863 Winchester Second
June 13 -- The Gettysburg Campaign.
Confederate General Lee decided to take the war to the enemy. On June 13, he defeated Union forces at Winchester, Virginia, and continued north to Pennsylvania. General Hooker, who had been planning to attack Richmond, was instead forced to follow Lee. Hooker, never comfortable with his commander, General Halleck, resigned on June 28, and General George Meade replaced him as commander of the Army of the Potomac.
June 20 -- West Virginia admitted to the Union
June 20-21, 1863 LaFourche Crossing
June 21, 1863 Upperville
June 24-26, 1863 Hoover's Gap
June 28, 1863 Donaldsonville
June 29–30, 1863 Goodrich's Landing / The Mounds / Lake Providence
June 30, 1863 Hanover
July 1 -- Battle of Gettysburg
A chance encounter between Union and Confederate forces began the Battle of Gettysburg. In the fighting that followed, Meade had greater numbers and better defensive positions. He won the battle, but failed to follow Lee as he retreated back to Virginia. Militarily, the Battle of Gettysburg was the high-water mark of the Confederacy; it is also significant because it ended Confederate hopes of formal recognition by foreign governments. On November 19, President Lincoln dedicated a portion of the Gettysburg battlefield as a national cemetery, and delivered his memorable "Gettysburg Address."
July 1-2, 1863 Cabin Creek
July 4, 1863 Helena
July 6-16, 1863 Williamsport / Hagerstown / Falling Waters
July 8, 1863 Boonsboro
July 9, 1863 Corydon
July 10-11, 1863 Fort Wagner / Morris Island
July 16, 1863 Grimball's Landing / Secessionville / James Island
July 18-September 7, 1863 Fort Wagner / Morris Island
July 12-13, 1863 Kock's Plantation / Cox's Plantation
July 10 -- Fort Wagner South Carolina
Union artillery on Folly Island together with Rear Adm. John Dahlgren's fleet of ironclads opened fire on Confederate defenses of Morris Island. The bombardment provided cover for Brig. Gen. George C. Strong's brigade, which crossed Light House Inlet and landed by boats on the southern tip of the island. Strong's troops advanced, capturing several batteries, to within range of Confederate Fort Wagner. At dawn, July 11, Strong attacked the fort. Soldiers of the 7th Connecticut reached the parapet but, unsupported, were thrown back.
July 18: -- After the July 11 assault on Fort Wagner failed, Gillmore reinforced his beachhead on Morris Island. At dusk July 18, Gillmore launched an attack spearheaded by the 54th Massachusetts Infantry, a black regiment. The unit's colonel, Robert Gould Shaw, was killed. Members of the brigade scaled the parapet but after brutal hand-to-hand combat were driven out with heavy casualties. The Federals resorted to siege operations to reduce the fort. This was the fourth time in the war that black troops played a crucial combat role, proving to skeptics that they would fight bravely if only given the chance.
July 16 -- Secessionville
To divert Confederate reinforcements from a renewed attack on Fort Wagner, Gen. Gillmore designed two feints. An amphibious force ascended Stone River to threaten the Charleston & Savannah Railroad bridge. A second force, consisting of Terry's division, landed on James Island on July 8. Terry demonstrated against the Confederate defenses. On July 16, the Confederates attacked Terry's camp at Grimball's Landing. Because of incomplete reconnaissance of the difficult, marshy ground, the disorganized Confederate attack was soon aborted. Their mission accomplished, Federal troops withdrew from the island on July 17.
July 17, 1863 Honey Springs / Elk Creek / Shaw's Inn
July 19, 1863 Buffington Island / St. Georges Creek
July 23, 1863 Manassas Gap / Wapping Heights
July 24-25, 1863 Big Mound
July 26, 1863 Salineville / New Lisbon Road / Wellsville
July 26, 1863 Dead Buffalo Lake
July 28, 1863 Stony Lake
August - December -- Bombardment of Fort Sumter
Federal batteries erected on Morris Island opened fire on August 17 and continued their bombardment of Fort Sumter and the Charleston defenses until August 23. Despite a severe pounding, Fort Sumter's garrison held out. Siege operations continued against Fort Wagner on Morris Island.
Aug 17-Aug 23, 1863 Fort Sumter / Charleston Harbor / Morris Island
August 21, 1863 Chattanooga
August 21, 1863 Lawrence / Lawrence Massacre
September 3-5, 1863 Whitestone Hill
September 6 -- Charleston Harbor
The night of September 6-7, Confederate forces evacuated Fort Wagner and Battery Gregg pressured by advancing Federal siegeworks. Federal troops then occupied all of Morris Island. On September 8, a storming party of about 400 marines and sailors attempted to surprise Fort Sumter. The attack was repulsed.
September 1, 1863 Devil's Backbone / Backbone Mountain
September 7-8, 1863 Charleston Harbor / Battery Gregg
September 8, 1863 Sabine Pass II
September 8 -- Fort Griffin Texas
About 6:00 am on the morning of September 8, 1863, a Union flotilla of four gunboats and seven troop transports steamed into Sabine Pass and up the Sabine River with the intention of reducing Fort Griffin and landing troops to begin occupying Texas. As the gunboats approached Fort Griffin, they came under accurate fire from six cannons. The Confederate gunners at Fort Griffin had been sent there as a punishment. To break the day-to-day monotony, the gunners practiced firing artillery at range markers placed in the river. Their practice paid off. Fort Griffin's small force of 44 men, under command of Lt. Richard W. Dowling, forced the Union flotilla to retire and captured the gunboat Clifton and about 200 prisoners. Further Union operations in the area ceased for about a month. The heroics at Fort Griffin--44 men stopping a Union expedition--inspired other Confederate soldiers.
September 10, 1863 Bayou Fourche / Little Rock
September 18-20, 1863 Chickamauga
September 19 -- The Battle of Chickamauga.
September 19, Union and Confederate forces met at Chickamauga Creek in Tennessee. After a brief period of fighting, Union forces retreated to Chattanooga, and the Confederacy maintained control of the battlefield. After Rosecrans's debacle at Chickamauga, Confederate General Braxton Bragg's army occupied the mountains that ring the vital railroad center of Chattanooga.
September 22, 1863 Blountsville
September 29, 1863 Stirling's Plantation / Fordoche Bridge
October 6, 1863 Baxter Springs
October 10, 1863 Blue Springs
October 13, 1863 Auburn / Catlett's Station / St. Stephen's Church
October 14, 1863 Bristoe Station
October 14, 1863 Auburn / Coffee Hill
October 16-18, 1863 Fort Brooke
October 19, 1863 Buckland Mills / Buckland Races / Chestnut Hill
October 25, 1863 Pine Bluff
October 28-29, 1863 Wauhatchie / Brown's Ferry
November 3, 1863 Collierville
November 6, 1863 Droop Mountain
November 7, 1863 Rappahannock Station
November 16, 1863 Campbell's Station
November 23-25, 1863 Chattanooga
November 1863 -- The Battle of Chattanooga. Grant, brought in to save the situation, steadily built up offensive strength, and on November 23- 25 burst the blockade in a series of brilliantly executed attacks. Union forces pushed Confederate troops away from Chattanooga. The victory set the stage for General Sherman's Atlanta Campaign.
November 27, 1863 Ringgold Gap / Taylor's Ridge
Nov 27-Dec 2, 1863 Mine Run / Payne's Farm / New Hope Church
November 29, 1863 Fort Sanders / Fort Loudon
November-December -- The Siege of Knoxville
The difficult strategic situation of the federal armies after Chickamauga enabled Bragg to detach a force under Longstreet to drive Burnside out of eastern Tennessee. Burnside sought refuge in Knoxville, which he successfully defended from Confederate assaults.
December 14, 1863 Bean's Station
December 29, 1863 Mossy Creek


1864

January 17, 1864 Dandridge
January 26, 1864 Athens / Alabama
January 27, 1864 Fair Garden
January 26 Confederate force fails in its attempt to take Athens, Alabama. Confederate cavalry, numbering about 600 men, attacked Athens, held by about 100 Union troops, around 4:00 am on the morning of January 26, 1864. After a two-hour battle, the Confederates retreated. Union forces, although greatly outnumbered and without fortifications, repulsed the attackers.
February 6-7 Morton's Ford / Rapidan River
February 13, 1864 Middle Boggy Depot
February 14-20, 1864 Meridian
February 17 Confederate Submarine Hunley sinks the USS Housatonic
February 20, 1864 Olustee / Ocean Pond
February 22, 1864 Okolona
February 20 Olustee Florida
In February, the commander of the Department of the South, Major General Quincy A. Gillmore, launched an expedition into Florida to secure Union enclaves, sever Rebel supply routes, and recruit black soldiers. Brig. General Truman Seymour moved deep into the state, occupying, destroying, and liberating, meeting little resistance on February 20, he approached Brig. General Joseph Finegan's 5,000 Confederates entrenched near Olustee. One infantry brigade pushed out to meet Seymour's advance units. The Union forces attacked but were repulsed. The battle raged, and as Finegan committed the last of his reserves, the Union line broke and began to retreat. Finegan did not exploit the retreat, allowing most of the fleeing Union forces to reach Jacksonville.
February 22-27, 1864 Dalton I
March 2 Walkerton / Mantapike Hill
March 14, 1864 Fort DeRussy
March 25, 1864 Paducah
April 3-4, 1864 Elkin's Ferry Okolona
April 8, 1864 Mansfield / Sabine Cross-Roads / Pleasant Grove
April 9, 1864 Pleasant Hill
April 9-13, 1864 Prairie D'Ane / Gum Grove / Moscow
April 12, 1864 Fort Pillow
April 12-13, 1864 Blair's Landing / Pleasant Hill Landing
April 17-20, 1864 Plymouth
April 18, 1864 Poison Spring
April 23, 1864 Monett's Ferry / Cane River Crossing
April 25, 1864 Marks' Mills
April 30, 1864 Jenkins' Ferry
May Grant's Wilderness Campaign
General Grant, promoted to commander of the Union armies, planned to engage Lee's forces in Virginia until they were destroyed. North and South met and fought in an inconclusive three- day battle in the Wilderness. Lee inflicted more casualties on the Union forces than his own army incurred, but unlike Grant, he had no replacements.
May The Battle of Spotsylvania.
General Grant continued to attack Lee. At Spotsylvania Court House, he fought for five days, vowing to fight all summer if necessary.
May 4, 1864 Day's Gap / Sand Mountain / Alabama
May 5, 1864 Albemarle Sound
May 5-7 Wilderness / Furnaces / Todd's Tavern
May 6-7 Port Walthall Junction
May 7-13, 1864 Rocky Face Ridge / Mill Creek / Dug Gap
May 8-21 Spotsylvania Court House / Corbin's Bridge
May 9 Cloyd's Mountain
May 9 Swift Creek / Arrowfield Church
May 10 Chester Station
May 10 Cove Mountain
May 11 Yellow Tavern
May 12-16 Proctor's Creek / Drewry's Bluff, / Fort Darling
May 13-15, 1864 Resaca
May 15 New Market
May 16, 1864 Mansura / Smith's Place / Marksville
May 17, 1864 Adairsville
May 18, 1864 Yellow Bayou / Norwood's Plantation
May 20 Ware Bottom Church
Confederate forces under General P.G.T. Beauregard attacked Butler's Bermuda Hundred line near Ware Bottom Church. About 10,000 troops were involved in this action. After driving back Butler's advanced pickets, the Confederates constructed the Howlett Line, effectively bottling up the Federals at Bermuda Hundred. Confederate victories at Proctor's Creek and Ware Bottom Church enabled Beauregard to detach strong reinforcements for Lee's army in time for the fighting at Cold Harbor
May 23-26 North Anna / Jericho Mill / Hanover Junction
May 24 Wilson's Wharf / Fort Pocahontas
May 25-26, 1864 New Hope Church
May 26-June 1, 1864 Dallas / Pumpkinvine Creek
May 27, 1864 Pickett's Mills / New Hope
May 28 Haw's Shop / Enon Church
May 28-30 Totopotomoy Creek / Shady Grove Road
May 30 Old Church / Matadequin Creek
May 31-June 12 Second Cold Harbor
June The Battle of Cold Harbor.
Grant again attacked Confederate forces at Cold Harbor, losing over 7,000 men in twenty minutes. Although Lee suffered fewer casualties, his army never recovered from Grant's continual attacks. This was Lee's last clear victory of the war.
June 1864 -- The Siege of Petersburg.
Grant hoped to take Petersburg, below Richmond, and then approach the Confederate capital from the south. The attempt failed, resulting in a ten month siege and the loss of thousands of lives on both sides, Grant won by steadily extending his lines westward.
June 5-6 Piedmont
June 6, 1864 Old River Lake / Ditch Bayou / Lake Chicot
June 9-July 3, 1864 Marietta / Pine Hill / Ruff's Mill
June 9 Petersburg
June 10, 1864 Brices Cross Roads / Tishomingo Creek
June 11-12 Trevilian Station
June 11-12, 1864 Cynthiana / Kellar's Bridge
June 15-18 Assault on Petersburg
June 17-18 Lynchburg
June 21-24 Jerusalem Plank Road / First Battle of Weldon
June 22, 1864 Kolb's Farm
June 24 Saint Mary's Church / Nance's Shop
June 25 Staunton River / Blacks and Whites
June 27, 1864 Kennesaw Mountain
June 28 Sappony Church / Stony Creek Depot
June 29 Ream's Station
July -- Confederate Troops Approach Washington, D.C.
Confederate General Jubal Early led his forces into Maryland to relieve the pressure on Lee's army. Early got within five miles of Washington, D.C., but on July 13, he was driven back to Virginia.
July 9, 1864 Monocacy
July 14-15, 1864 Tupelo / Harrisburg
July 17-18 Cool Spring / Island Ford / Parkers Ford
July 20, 1864 Peachtree Creek
July 20 Rutherford's Farm
July 22, 1864 Atlanta
July 24 Kernstown Second
July 27-29 Deep Bottom I / Strawberry Plains / Gravel Hill
July 28, 1864 Ezra Church / Battle of the Poor House
July 28-29, 1864 Killdeer Mountain / Tahkahokuty Mountain
July 30 Crater / The Mine
August 1, 1864 Folck's Mill / Cumberland
August 2-23 -- Mobile Bay / Fort Morgan / Fort Gaines Alabama.
A combined Union force initiated operations to close Mobile Bay to blockade running. Some Union forces landed on Dauphin Island and laid siege to Fort Gaines. On August 5, Farragut's Union fleet of eighteen ships entered Mobile Bay and received devastating a fire from Forts Gaines and Morgan and other points. After passing the forts, Farragut forced the Confederate naval forces, under Adm. Franklin Buchanan, to surrender, which effectively closed Mobile Bay. By August 23, Fort Morgan, the last big holdout, fell, shutting down the port. The city, however, remained uncaptured.
 August 1864 -- General Sherman's Atlanta Campaign.
Union General William T. Sherman departed Chattanooga, and was soon met by Confederate General Joseph Johnston. Skillful strategy enabled Johnston to hold off Sherman's force -- almost twice the size of Johnston's. However, Johnston's tactics caused his superiors to replace him with General John Bell Hood, who was soon defeated. Hood surrendered Atlanta, Georgia, on September 1; Sherman occupied the city the next day. The fall of Atlanta greatly boosted Northern morale.
August 5-7, 1864 Utoy Creek
August 7, 1864 Moorefield / Oldfields
August 13-20 Deep Bottom II / Fussell's Mill / Bailey's Creek
August 14-15, 1864 Dalton II
August 16 Guard Hill / Front Royal / Cedarville
August 18-21 Globe Tavern / Yellow Tavern / Blick's Station
August 20, 1864 Lovejoy's Station
August 21, 1864 Summit Point / Flowing Springs / Cameron's Depot
August 21, 1864 Memphis
August 25 Ream's Station
August 25-29, 1864 Smithfield Crossing
August 31–September 1, 1864 Jonesborough
September-November -- Sherman in Atlanta
After three and a half months of incessant maneuvering and much hard fighting, Sherman forced Hood to abandon Atlanta, the munitions center of the Confederacy. Sherman remained there, resting his war-worn men and accumulating supplies, for nearly two-and-a-half months.
September 3-4 Berryville
September 10-11, 1864 Davis' Cross Roads / Dug Gap
September 19 Opequon / Third Winchester
September 21-22 Fisher's Hill
September 27, 1864 Fort Davidson / Pilot Knob
September 29-30 Chaffin's Farm / New Market Heights
September 30 Peebles' Farm / Poplar Springs Church
October 2 Saltville
October 5, 1864 Allatoona
October 7 Darbytown / New Market Roads / Fourmile Creek
October 9 Tom's Brook / Woodstock Races
October 13 Darbytown Road / Alms House
October 15, 1864 Glasgow
October 19, 1864 Lexington
October 19 Cedar Creek
October 21, 1864 Little Blue River / Westport
October 22, 1864 Independence
October 22-23, 1864 Byram's Ford / Big Blue River
October 23, 1864 Westport
October 25, 1864 Marmiton River / Shiloh Creek / Charlot's Farm
October 25, 1864 Mine Creek / Battle of the Osage
October 25, 1864 Marais des Cygnes / Battle of Trading Post
October 26-29, 1864 Decatur, Alabama
October 28, 1864 Newtonia
October 26-29-- Franklin-Nashville Campaign General John B. Hood's Army of Tennessee, in an attempt to cross the Tennessee River at Decatur, Alabama encountered Union forces under the command of Brig. General Robert S. Granger for most of the battle, numbered only about 5,000 men, but successfully prevented the much larger Confederate force from crossing the river.
October 27-28 Fair Oaks / Darbytown Road / Second Fair Oaks
October 27-28-- Boydton Plank Road aka Hatcher's Run, Burgess' Mill. Directed by Major General Winfield Scott Hancock, divisions from three Union corps (II, V, and IX) and Gregg's cavalry division, numbering more than 30,000 men, withdrew from the Petersburg lines and marched west to operate against the Boydton Plank Road and Southside Railroad. The initial Union advance on October 27 gained the Boydton Plank Road, a major campaign objective. But that afternoon, a counterattack near Burgess' Mill spearheaded by Major General Henry Heth's division and Wade Hampton's cavalry isolated the II Corps and forced a retreat. The Confederates retained control of the Boydton Plank Road for the rest of the winter.
November 4-5, 1864 Johnsonville
November 11-13, 1864 Bull's Gap
November 24-29, 1864 Columbia
November 29, 1864 Spring Hill
November 30, 1864 Franklin
November 1864 -- Sherman's March to the Sea.
General Sherman continued his march through Georgia to the sea. In the course of the march, he cut himself off from his source of supplies, planning for his troops to live off the land. His men cut a path 300 miles in length and 60 miles wide as they passed through Georgia, destroying factories, bridges, railroads, and public buildings.
November 22, 1864 Griswoldville
November 28, 1864 Buck Head Cree
November 30, 1864 Honey Hill
November 30 -- Honey Hill South Carolina.
Leaving Hilton Head on November 28, a Union expeditionary force under Major General John P. Hatch, steamed up the Broad River in transports to cut the Charleston & Savannah Railroad near Pocotaligo. Hatch disembarked at Boyd's Landing and marched inland. On November 30, Hatch encountered a Confederate force of regulars and militia under Col. Charles J. Colcock at Honey Hill. Determined attacks by U.S. Colored Troops (including the 54th Massachusetts) failed to capture the Confederate entrenchments or cut the railroad. Hatch retired after dark, withdrawing to his transports at Boyd's Neck
November 1864 -- Abraham Lincoln Is Re-Elected.
The Republican party nominated President Abraham Lincoln as its presidential candidate, and Andrew Johnson for vice-president. The Democratic party chose General George B. McClellan for president, and George Pendleton for vice-president. At one point, widespread war-weariness in the North made a victory for Lincoln seem doubtful. In addition, Lincoln's veto of the Wade-Davis Bill -- requiring the majority of the electorate in each Confederate state to swear past and future loyalty to the Union before the state could officially be restored -- lost him the support of Radical Republicans who thought Lincoln too lenient. However, Sherman's victory in Atlanta boosted Lincoln's popularity and helped him win re-election by a wide margin.
November 29-30, 1864 Sand Creek / Chivington Massacre
December 4, 1864 Waynesborough
December 5-7, 1864 Murfreesboro / Wilkinson Pike / Cedars
December 7-27, 1864 Fort Fisher
December 13, 1864 Fort McAllister II
December 1864 -- Sherman at the Sea
After marching through Georgia for a month, Sherman stormed Fort McAllister on December 13, 1864, and captured Savannah itself eight days later.
December -- Hood before Nashville
Continuing his policy of taking the offensive at any cost, General John B. Hood brought his reduced army before the defenses of Nashville, where it was repulsed by General George H. Thomas on December 15-16, in the most complete victory of the war.
December 15-16, 1864 Nashville
December 17-18 Marion
December 20-21 Saltville


1865

January 1865 -- Fort Fisher, North Carolina
After Admiral David D. Porter's squadron of warships had subjected Fort Fisher to a terrific bombardment, General Alfred H. Terry's troops took it by storm on January 15, and Wilmington, North Carolina, the last resort of the blockade-runners, was sealed off.
January 13-15, 1865 Fort Fisher
January 1865 -- The Fall of the Confederacy.
Transportation problems and successful blockades caused severe shortages of food and supplies in the South. Starving soldiers began to desert Lee's forces, and although President Jefferson Davis approved the arming of slaves as a means of augmenting the shrinking army, the measure was never put into effect.
 February - Sherman Marches through North and South Carolina.
Union General Sherman moved from Georgia through South Carolina, destroying almost everything in his path.
February 3, 1865 Rivers' Bridge / Owens' Crossroads
February 3 -- Rivers' Bridge
Confederate force under McLaws held the crossings of the Salkehatchie River against the advance of the right wing of Sherman's Army. Federal soldiers began building bridges across the swamp to bypass the road block. In the meantime, Union columns worked to get on the Confederates' flanks and rear. On February 3, two Union brigades waded the swamp downstream and assaulted McLaws's right. McLaws retreated toward Branchville after stalling Sherman's advance for only one day.
February -- A Chance for Reconciliation Is Lost.
Confederate President Jefferson Davis agreed to send delegates to a peace conference with President Lincoln and Secretary of State William Seward, but insisted on Lincoln's recognition of the South's independence as a prerequisite. Lincoln refused, and the conference never occurred.
February 5-7 Hatcher's Run / Dabney's Mill / Rowanty Creek
February 12-22, 1865 Wilmington / Forks Road / Sugar Loaf Hill
March 2 Waynesboro
March 4 Abraham Lincoln Second Inaugural Address
March 6, 1865 Natural Bridge
Maj. Gen. John Newton had undertaken a joint force expedition (including 2nd U.S. Colored Infantry and 99th U.S. Colored Infantry) to engage and destroy Confederate troops that had attacked at Cedar Keys and Fort Myers and were allegedly encamped somewhere around St. Marks. The Navy had trouble getting its ships up the St. Marks River. The Army force, however, had advanced and, after finding one bridge destroyed, started before dawn on March 6 to attempt to cross the river at Natural Bridge. The troops initially pushed Rebel forces back but not away from the bridge. Confederate forces, protected by breastworks, guarded all of the approaches and the bridge itself. The action at Natural Bridge lasted most of the day, but, unable to take the bridge, the Union troops retreated to the protection of the fleet.
March 7-10, 1865 Wyse Fork / Wilcox's Bridge / Second Southwest Creek
March 10, 1865 Monroe's Cross Roads / Fayetteville Road / Blue's Farm
March 16, 1865 Averasborough / Smiths Ferry / Black River
March 19-21, 1865 Bentonville / Bentonsville
March 25 Fort Stedman
March 27-April 8 -- Spanish Fort.
Maj. Gen. E.R.S. Canby's forces, the XIII and XVI corps, moved along the eastern shore of Mobile Bay, forcing the Confederates back into their defenses. Union forces then concentrated on Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. On March 27, 1865, Canby's forces rendezvoused at Danley's Ferry and immediately undertook a siege of Spanish Fort. The Union had enveloped the fort by April 1, and on April 8 captured it. Most of the Confederate forces, under the command of Brig. Gen. Randall L. Gibson, escaped and fled to Mobile, but Spanish Fort was no longer a threat.
April 2 -- Selma.
Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson, commanding three divisions of Union cavalry, about 13,500 men, led his men south from Gravelly Springs, Alabama, on March 22, 1865. Opposed by Confederate Lt. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest, Wilson skillfully continued his march and eventually defeated him in a running battle at Ebenezer Church, on April 1. Continuing towards Selma, Wilson split his command into three columns. Although Selma was well-defended, the Union columns broke through the defenses at separate points forcing the Confederates to surrender the city, although many of the officers and men, including Forrest and Lt. Gen. Richard Taylor, escaped. Selma demonstrated that even Forrest, whom some had considered invincible, could not stop the unrelenting Union movements deep into the Southern Heartland.
March 29 Lewis's Farm / Quaker Road / Military Road
March 31 White Oak Road / Hatcher's Run / Gravelly Run
March 31 Dinwiddie Court House
April 2-9, 1865 Fort Blakely
April 2-9-- Canby's forces, the XVI and XIII corps, moved along the eastern shore of Mobile Bay, forcing the Confederates back into their defenses. Union forces then concentrated on Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. By April 1, Union forces had enveloped Spanish Fort, thereby releasing more troops to focus on Fort Blakely. Brig. Gen. St. John R. Liddell, with about 4,000 men, held out against the much larger Union force until other Confederate forces disengaged and Spanish Fort fell on April 8, allowing Canby to concentrate 16,000 men for the attack on April 9. Sheer numbers breached the Confederate earthworks compelling the Confederates to capitulate. The siege and capture of Fort Blakely was basically the last combined-force battle of the war. African-American forces played a major role in the successful Union assault.
April -- Richmond Falls.
March 25, General Lee attacked General Grant's forces near Petersburg, but was defeated -- attacking and losing again on April 1. On April 2, Lee evacuated Richmond, the Confederate capital, and headed west to join with other forces.
April 1 Five Forks
April 2, 1865 Ebenezer Church / Selma / Alabama
April 2, 1865 Hill's Plantation / Cache River / Cotton Plant
April 2 Petersburg / The Breakthrough
April 2 Sutherland's Station
April 3 Namozine Church
April 5 Amelia Springs
April 6 Sailor's Creek / Hillsman Farm
April 6 Rice's Station
April 6-7 High Bridge
April 7 Cumberland Church / Farmville
April 8 Appomattox Station
April 8 Spanish Fort
April 9 Fort Blakely Alabama

April 9 -- Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse.
General Lee's troops were soon surrounded, and on April 7, Grant called upon Lee to surrender. On April 9, the two commanders met at Appomattox Courthouse, and agreed on the terms of surrender. Lee's men were sent home on parole -- soldiers with their horses, and officers with their side arms. All other equipment was surrendered.


April -- The Assassination of President Lincoln.
On April 14, as President Lincoln was watching a performance of "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C., he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor from Maryland obsessed with avenging the Confederate defeat. Lincoln died the next morning. Booth escaped to Virginia. Eleven days later, cornered in a burning barn, Booth was fatally shot by a Union soldier. Nine other people were involved in the assassination; four were hanged, four imprisoned, and one acquitted.
April 1865 -- Final Surrenders among Remaining Confederate Troops.
Remaining Confederate troops were defeated between the end of April and the end of May. Jefferson Davis was captured in Georgia on May 10.
May 12-13, 1865 Palmito Ranch / Palmito Hill
May 12-13 -- Palmito Hill Texas
Union Col. Theodore H. Barrett dispatched an expedition to attack reported Rebel outposts and camps.
Nov. 1865 -- The Execution of Captain Henry Wirz
The notorious superintendent of the Confederate prison at Andersonville, Georgia, was tried by a military commission presided over by General Lew Wallace from August 23 to October 24, 1865, and was hanged in the yard of the Old Capitol Prison on November 10.
December 18
Thirteenth Amendment to Constitution ratified, abolishing slavery.


PRIMARY SOURCES:

American Civil War Battle Time Line
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